Mar 27, 2013 8:00 PM
New Jersey College Orchestra
Concert. The College of New Jersey Orchestra, Michel Galante - conductor.
Suggested donation $10
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Symphony #31 in D Major “Hornsignal” (1765)
Iris Chiu, solo violin
Katie Little, solo flute
Douglas Strahle, solo cello
Bronson Manly, solo bass
James Tucker, Andrew Unger, Taylor Lorchak, Sarah Szulecki, horn soloists
“Nicht Schnell” from Symphony #3 “Rhenish” (1850)
Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904)
Romance for violin and orchestra, Op. 11 (1877)
Ruotao Mao, solo violin
Franz Joseph HAYDN
Symphony #31, Hob. 1:31
CPE Bach wrote ten-minute works called, "Symphonies" which influenced the young Franz Joseph Haydn enormously, particularly in the area of rhythmic and metrical ambiguities. However, compared with Haydn’s symphonies, CPE Bach's symphonies seem like mere prototypes, not like fully blown works. It was Haydn who invented the classical symphony as we know it today: a four movement work lasting between 20 and 40 minutes. For this reason Haydn is often referred to as the, "Father of the Symphony".
The symphonies of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven conform to the following scheme:
movement: A dramatic movement based on a struggle between tonalities,
articulated by a hierarchy of themes.
2. A song form: A lyrical slow movement, which is essentially melodic.
3. A dance form: Either a "Minuet and Trio" or a "Scherzo and Trio."
4. A Finale: meant to settle a final sense of tonal balance. It comprised one of two forms: a cyclical "rondo" form, or a theme and variations.
Haydn uses this scheme for his 31st Symphony, written in 1785. He was both practical and inventive, and adjusted his compositional plans and ambitions according to the level of the performers he had at his disposal. When Haydn wrote his 31st Symphony, he had a fine quartet of horns he wished to feature, as well as flute, violin, cello, and double bass players whose loyalty he wished to gain by giving them solo passages in his compositions. The result is a symphony that often sounds like a concerto grosso because the horn, flute, solo violin, solo cello, and solo bass parts are difficult and virtuosic. In particular, the horn writing is tremendously demanding and a brilliant fit for the horns of the College of New Jersey.
Nicht Schnell from Symphony #3 in E-flat Major, op. 97, "Rhenish"
Like Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony or Berlioz’s Symphony Fantastique the Rhenish symphony has 5 movements rather than the traditional four movements. Every movement is a fantasy of sorts, relying just as much on Schumann’s fantastic imagination as on his understanding of classical form and discipline. The inner movements of this work are character pieces, similar to his Novelettes op.21. We perform the third movement as an isolated piece. Marked Nicht Schnell (not fast), it is a charming intermezzo with a phrase structure that is highly irregular, but also very natural and organic.
Romance, op. 11
Dvořák's Romance for violin and orchestra is a based on the slow movement from his 5th string quartet. The fate of that quartet was an enormous disappointment to Dvořák, because the group that commissioned the work, the Bennewitz Quartet, refused to perform it due to its "lack of quartet style". Dvořák destroyed the opening page of the score and didn't bother to publish the piece. However, the slow movement of that work is sublime, bearing a mournful quality that is reminiscent of Schubert. Dvořák recognized that this movement did not deserve obscurity. He reworked it into a twelve-minute stand-alone concert work for violin and orchestra. The original version is intimate and direct, starting immediately with the full theme and going immediately to a contrasting theme. The Romance is elaborate and richly embellished by the orchestra, breaking up the theme into introductory motives and transitions. Here is one of the few examples in history where an intimate chamber work was transformed into both a virtuoso showpiece and a full-blown orchestral work.
Nhi K Lam
321 East 73rd Street
NY 10021 New York
Mar 27, 2013 8:00 PM